Coulomb’s Law


Electricity and Magnetism


Knowledge Area: Electricity and Magnetism

Topic: Internal resistance and Series-Parallel networks

Part 1

Aim

To determine the internal resistance of a battery

Precautions

Do not leave the switch closed at all times.  The battery will run flat. Close the switch only for taking the readings on the voltmeter and Ammeter.  Take your readings accurately. Do not conduct the experiment with wet hands.

Instructions

Place 4 x 1,5V cells in a cell holder in a series connection.  Connect a Switch, Ammeter and a Rheostat in series to the battery.  Connect the Voltmeter across the battery.

If a rheostat is not available, resistors or bulbs could be used in the place of a rheostat. The resistors or bulbs must be connected in series.  One resistor/bulb must be connected first and then the resistors/bulbs be increased to two in series, three in series, etc.

Draw the electrical circuit diagram. Set the Rheostat at 10W. Close the switch and reduce the resistance in the Rheostat step by step, increasing the current at the same time. Take the ammeter and voltmeter readings in each case/step. Open the switch while recording the readings in order to spare the batteries’ life span.

Take and record a minimum of 5 readings. Interpret and analyse the data in order to determine the internal resistance. Write a conclusion and prepare a report (write-up).

Part 2

Aim:

  1. To determine the equivalent resistance in a Series-parallel network electrical circuit.
  2. To compare the experimental values of the equivalent resistance to the theoretical values.

Instructions:

Place 4 x 1.5V cells in a cell in a cell holder in a series connection. Connect a voltmeter (V1) across the battery. Connect three resistors of different resistance. One resistor must be connected in series with a voltmeter (V2) across and the other two resistors must be connected in parallel with a voltmeter across (V3). Connect a switch and an ammeter.

WAVES


English: Standing sine waves in a box (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

via EXAMPLES OF WAVES — Physical Sciences Break 1.0

Charles Law


The volume of a fixed mass of gas is inversely proportional to its pressure at constant temperature.

The volume of a fixed mass of gas is directly proportional to its temperature at constant pressure.

v ∝ t
v = k t
v = k t

As you can see, the line, when extended backwards crosses the x-axis at -273 C0. There is a special temperature when all gases have zero volume, called Absolute Temperature.
So, 0 T = -273 C
+ 273 => 273 T = 0C
+ t => (273 + t) T = t C
T = 273 + t, where t is the temperature in Celsius.

If the temperature and volume of a fixed mass of gas take the values of v1 T1and V2 T2 respectively, where T is absolute temperature,

 

V1 / T1 = V2 / T2

E.g.

The volume of a fixed mass of air is volume is 8 cm3 at 27 C0. Its temperature is raised to 127 C0, while keeping the pressure constant. Find the volume.
p1 = 20, v1 = 8, p2 = 40
According to Charles’s law,
V1 / T1 = V2 / T2
8 / (273 + 27) = v2 / (273 + 127)
v2 = 10.6cm3

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Boyle’s law


Boyle's law

The volume of a fixed mass of gas is inversely proportional to its pressure at constant temperature.
p ∝ 1 / v
p = k 1 /v
pv = k

If the pressure and volume of a fixed mass of gas take the values of p1 v1and p2 v2 respectively,

p1 v1 = p2 v2

E.g.

The pressure of a fixed mass of air is 20 Pa and volume is 8 cm3. Its pressure is doubled while keeping the temperature constant. Find the volume.
p1 = 20, v1 = 8, p2 = 40
According to Boyle’s law,
p1v1 = p2v2
20 x 8 = v2 x 40
v2 = 4cm3