The pressure of a gas is directly proportional to its temperature, if the volume is kept constant (Figure Figure 7). Recall that as the temperature of a gas increases, so does the kinetic energy of the particles in the gas. This causes the particles in the gas to move more rapidly and to collide with each other and with the side of the container more often. Since pressure is a measure of these collisions, the pressure of the gas increases with an increase in temperature. The pressure of the gas will decrease if its temperature decreases.
You may see this law referred to as Gay-Lussac’s law or as Amontons’ law. Many scientists were working on the same problems at the same time and it is often difficult to know who actually discovered a particular law.
In the same way that we have done for the other gas laws, we can describe the relationship between temperature and pressure using symbols, as follows:
Rearranging this we get:
and that, provided the amount of gas stays the same (and the volume also stays the same):
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