Any vector can be resolved into a horizontal and a vertical component. If R  is a vector, then the horizontal component of R is R x and the vertical component is R y.

Chipa Thomas Maimela‘s insight:

A number of vectors acting together can be combined to give a single vector (the resultant). In much the same way a single vector can be broken down into a number of vectors which when added give that original vector. These vectors which sum to the original are called components of the original vector. The process of breaking a vector into its components is called resolving into components.

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