Names and formulae of substances.


  • Water: H2O
  • Carbon dioxide: CO2
  • Nitrogen gas: N2
  • Oxygen gas: O2
  • Glucose: C6H12O6
  • Methane: CH4
  • Ethanol: C2H5OH
  • Sodium chloride: NaCl
  • Calcium oxide: CaO
  • Sulfuric acid: H2SO4
  • Ammonium hydroxide: NH4OH
  • Hydrochloric acid: HCl
  • Nitric acid: HNO3
  • Acetic acid: CH3COOH
  • Potassium hydroxide: KOH
  • Magnesium oxide: MgO
  • Iron(II) sulfate: FeSO4
  • Copper(II) chloride: CuCl2
  • Silver nitrate: AgNO3
  • Gold chloride: AuCl3
  • Sodium bicarbonate: NaHCO3
  • Potassium permanganate: KMnO4
  • Calcium carbonate: CaCO3
  • Ferrous sulfate: FeSO4
  • Copper sulfate: CuSO4
  • Ammonium carbonate: NH4HCO3
  • Aluminium hydroxide: Al(OH)3
  • Iron(III) chloride: FeCl3
  • Zinc chloride: ZnCl2
  • Barium chloride: BaCl2
  • Nickel(II) sulfate: NiSO4
  • Magnesium nitrate: Mg(NO3)2
  • Silver chloride: AgCl
  • Platinum(IV) chloride: PtCl4
  • Tin(II) chloride: SnCl2
  • Titanium(IV) oxide: TiO2
  • Chromium(III) chloride: CrCl3
  • Lead(II) nitrate: Pb(NO3)2
  • Gold(III) chloride: AuCl3
  • Platinum(IV) oxide: PtO2

Flame tests to identify some metal cations and metals.


Flame tests are a simple and effective way to identify the presence of certain metal cations in a sample. The principle behind flame tests is that when a metal cation is heated in a flame, it will emit light of a specific color that can be used to identify the metal cation.

Experimental Method:

  1. Obtain a Bunsen burner and a clean wire loop.
  2. Prepare a solution of the metal cations to be tested.
  3. Dip the wire loop into the solution and hold it in the flame.
  4. Observe the color of the flame and compare it to a known color chart or reference.
  5. Repeat the test for different metal cations to identify them.

Data Analysis:

The color of the flame can be used to identify the metal cation present in the sample. Different metal cations will emit different colored flames. For example, sodium ions produce a yellow flame, copper ions produce a blue-green flame, and lithium ions produce a red flame.

Conclusion:

Flame tests are a simple and effective way to identify the presence of certain metal cations in a sample. By observing the color of the flame, it is possible to identify the metal cation present in the sample. It’s important to note that flame tests can give false positives, so chemical tests like spectroscopy should be used to confirm the results.

 GRADE 10 NOVEMBER CONTROLLED TEST TERM 4 2021  


Paper shared with the help of KC Kakinda

DEPENDENT AND INDEPENDENT VARIABLES


GRADE 10 P2 EXAMPLAR